Constructed with a cane handle and a tightly braided leather whip. Britain abolished the slave trade throughout its empire in 1807, although slavery itself was not abolished until 1833. In North America’s southern cotton states, however, slavery continued for several decades, as it did in many other parts of the world. The use of shackles, handcuffs and whips in slave markets and on sugar and cotton plantations had always been one of the most shocking aspects of slavery for abolitionist Europeans and Americans. Such items were still in use in the early 1860s.